Pre-Nicene New Testament


The Pre-Nicene New Testament: Fifty-four Formative Texts

Reinventing the cannon with twenty-seven sacred books, including the Dead Sea Scrolls and Nag Hammadi writings.

November, 2006

SKU: 1-56085-194-5 Categories: , , Tag: Author: Robert M. PriceProduct ID: 1455


In this monumental work, Professor Price offers an inclusive New Testament canon with twenty-seven additional sacred books from the first three centuries of Christianity, including a few of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Nag Hammadi writings. Price also reconstructs the Gospel of Marcion and the lost Gospel according to the Hebrews. Here, for the first time, is a canon representing all major factions of the early church.

As an interpretive translation, Price’s text is both accurate and readable and is tied more closely to the Greek than most previous translations. Price conveys the meanings of words in context, carefully choosing the right phrase or idiom to convey their sense in English. For words that had a specific theological import when first written, Price leaves the Greek transliteration, giving readers archons for the fallen angels thought to be ruling the world, paraclete for encourager, and pleroma for the Gnostic godhead.

Within the collection, each book is introduced with comments about the cultural setting, information about when a document was probably written, and significant textual considerations, which together form a running commentary that continues into the footnotes. The findings of scholars, documented and summarized by Price, will come as a surprise to some readers. It appears, as Price suggests, that most of what is known about Jesus came by way of revelation to Christian oracles rather than by word of mouth as historical memory. In addition, the major characters in the New Testament, including Peter, Stephen, and Paul, appear to be composites of several historical individuals each, their stories comprising a mix of events, legend, and plot themes borrowed from the Old Testament and Greek literature.

In the New Testament world, theology developed gradually along different trajectories, with tension between the charismatic ascetics such as Marcion and Thecla, as examples, and the emerging Catholic orthodoxy of such clergy as Ignatius and Polycarp. The tension is detectable in the texts themselves, many of which represent “heretical” points of view: Gnostic, Jewish-Christian, Marcionite, and proto-orthodox, and were later edited, sometimes clumsily, in an attempt to harmonize all into one consistent theology.

What may occur to many readers, among the more striking aspects of the narratives, is that the earliest, most basic writings, such as Mark’s Gospel in inarticulate Greek, are ultimately more impressive and inspirational than the later attempts by more educated Christians to appeal to sophisticated readers with better grammar and more allusions to classical mythology and apologetic embellishments.

The critical insights and theories on display in these pages have seldom been incorporated into mainstream conservative Bible translations, and in many ways, Price has made the New Testament a whole new book for readers, allowing them, by virtue of the translation, to comprehend the meaning of the text where it is obscured by the traditional wording. Whatever usefulness teachers, students, and clergy may find here in terms of pedagogical and inspirational value, The Pre-Nicene New Testament is guaranteed to provoke further thought and conversation among the general public—hopefully toward the goal of more personal study and insights.

Robert M. Price holds doctoral degrees from Drew University in both theology and New Testament. He is currently Professor of Scriptural Studies at the Johnnie Colemon Theological Seminary, traveling lecturer for the Center for Inquiry Institute in Amherst, New York, and editor of the Journal of Higher Criticism. His books include The Amazing Colossal Apostle: The Search for the Historical PaulDeconstructing Jesus, The Da Vinci Fraud, The Reason-Driven Life, Paul as Text: The Apostle and the Apocrypha, and The Widow Traditions in Luke-Acts: A Feminist-Critical Scrutiny. He has published in the American Rationalist, Evangelical Quarterly, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Reformed Journal, and elsewhere.

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2 reviews for Pre-Nicene New Testament

  1. William Harwood, American Rationalist

    Three translations of biblical texts belong in every scholar’s library: Robert M. Price’s The Pre-Nicene New Testament, Bart Ehrman’s Lost Scriptures, and Robert J. Miller’s The Complete Gospels. All contain documents that were at one time recognized as Christian scripture. While there is much overlap, each contains books not found in either of the others. Only Price includes the Gospel of Marcion (as well as the hostile Toldot Yeshu). Ehrman and Miller both include three Jewish gospels excluded by Price. Ehrman alone includes the Gospel of the Egyptians. Miller alone includes the Secret Gospel of Mark, presumably because his book was published before Morton Smith’s alleged discovery was definitively exposed as a forgery, while those of Ehrman and Price were compiled after Smith was debunked. Only Miller includes the Q gospel, similar but not identical with the reconstruction included in my own Compact Fully Translated Bible. Miller also includes a “Signs Gospel” that he identifies as a source of John, closely matching “The Beloved Disciple’s Memoir,” likewise found in the Compact Fully Translated Bible. Price alone includes his own translations of Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John, more comprehensible than any authorized bible, while remaining a literal translation, not a paraphrasing.

  2. J. Duncan M. Derrett

    The skeleton alone intrigues. Part I: Prehistoric Writings, including the Book of the Baptizer, Revelation of Dositheus, Great Declaration of Simon Magus, and Sayings of Jesus apud al-Ghazali; Part II: Matthaean Cycle, including Mark, Matthew, Gospel according to the Hebrews, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, and Toldot Yeshu; Part III: Marcion’s Apostolicon, including Marcion’s Gospel, Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Thessalonians, Romans, Laodiceans, Ephesians, 2 Laodiceans, Colossians, Philemon (inauthentic), and Philippians; Part IV: To Theophilus, including Luke, Acts, Titus, 2 and 1 Timothy; Part V: The Testament of John, including John (“a mess,” p. 667), Preaching of John, 3, 2, and 1 John, and Revelation; Part VI: The Petrine Corpus, including the Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter (Clementine Homily), 1, 2, and 3 Peter, 4 Peter, and Apocalypse of Peter; Part VII: Heirs of Jesus, including MMT (Qumran), James, “Jesus to Abgarus,” Qumran Hymns, Hebrews, Melchizedek, Jude, Thomas, and Gospel of Mary Magdalene; and finally Part VIII: Pauline Circle, including Hermas, Paul & Thecla, Barnabas, Revelation of Paul, and 3 Corinthians. All annotated and compared, revealing many Christianities parallel to many Judaisms. Not wanting to disparage churches, our New Testament appears in its setting from Marcion onward. A pre-Nicene New Testament finds value in dumping any canon.

    But brave-hearted pioneers use an unproved hypothesis. What if there are New Testament parallels with Homer or Euripides? The latter need not be New Testament sources. Just as the Anointing at Bethany derives from 1 Samuel 25:2-41 and the Feedings from Ruth 2:14-18, the New Testament authors used Old Testament paradigms as mannequins on which to hang their verbal icons using familiar palettes. Having said this, one still greets Price’s contribution with grateful awe, condoning his “fine thing” for “good work” as at Mark 14:6.

    This staggering book, out-Bultmanning Bultmann, inaugurates an era. Long nurtured, a conception of “a New Testament,” not confined to “our New Testament,” leaves the harbor of theology and displays a new genre. “Study of religion in late antiquity” will not serve for it, being too blunt and too bland. Our New Testament canon, made somehow by men, of anonymous works usually dated too early, is a selection from multiple sources, many helpful to evaluate how that selection was made. In his Pre-Nicene New Testament, Price includes many texts that have hunched under the aegis of theology, this non-science barely tolerating a mishmash of apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, and he amuses us by including a known forgery (pp. 634-38). He reconstructs and paraphrases, italicizing interpolations by others and himself. Playing with my themes, ignoring churches, drawing on D. F. Strauss, F. C. Baur, E. Stauffer, and others, he confronts New Testament passages with pagan and Jewish parallels, the result intimidating a reviewer, a blind man evaluating an elephant.

    In Miller’s words (p. vii), “The Fellows of the Jesus Seminar have taken a bold step in gathering all the surviving gospels and gospel fragments into one volume. … The Scholars Version—SV for short—is free of ecclesiastical and religious control, unlike other major translations into English. … It also differs from most other English versions in that it is not a revision of a previous translation.”

    Price, also a fellow of the Jesus Seminar, could have written all of the above in his own introduction. His translations are likewise not falsified to preserve the pretense that gospel authors believed the same things Christians believe, as church-authorized translations are without exception so falsified. Equal objectivity is found in Ehrman, who as far as I can gather was still afflicted with the religion virus when his book was written, but is now cured.

    If economic considerations permit buying only one of the three, the choice based primarily on quantity (I see no difference in quality) should be Price’s Pre-Nicene New Testament. But all three provide useful information not found in the others. And all are available at significant discounts from Amazon.

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